Anemia Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment at CMC Dubai

Anemia is a medical condition in which a person lacks enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to the body tissues. It is also referred to as low hemoglobin. Anemia usually makes one feel tired and weak.

Anemia comes in many forms, each with a unique cause. Anemia can be mild to severe and can be short-term or long-term. It typically has multiple causes.

Types of Anemia

  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Thalassemia
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Iron deficiency anemia

Symptoms of Anemia

  • Weakness
  • Headaches
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Chest pain
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Yellowish skin
  • Shortness of breath

Causes of Anemia

There are different causes for different types of anemia. They include:

  • Aplastic anemia: This type usually occurs when your body fails to make enough red blood cells. Aplastic anemia can be brought on by infections, some medications, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to hazardous substances.
  • Anemia associated with bone marrow disease: Anemia can be brought on by a number of diseases that interfere with the bone marrow’s ability to produce blood, including leukemia and myelofibrosis.
  • Hemolytic anemia: this group of anemias occurs when red blood cells are lost more quickly than bone marrow can produce new ones. Red blood cell breakdown is accelerated by some blood conditions.
  • Iron deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia that is caused by a shortage of iron in a person’s body.
  • Vitamin deficiency anemia: To make enough healthy blood cells, a person’s body requires folate and vitamin B-12 in addition to iron. Reduced formation of red blood cells can result from a diet deficient in these and other essential nutrients. Some individuals who consume enough B-12 can’t absorb the vitamin and this can eventually lead to vitamin deficiency also referred to as pernicious anemia.
  • Sickle cell anemia: This is an inherited condition and is typically caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces red blood cells to assume an abnormal crescent shape. These abnormal blood cells die soon resulting in a persistent deficit of red blood cells.

Risk Factors of Anemia

  • Family history
  • Pregnancy
  • Menstruation
  • Intestinal disorders
  • Age – individuals over age 65 are at an increased risk of anemia
  • A diet lacking in certain vitamins and minerals

Diagnosis of Anemia

During the diagnosis of anemia, the doctor is likely to inquire about your medical and family history, perform a physical examination, and conduct the following tests:

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • A test to determine the size and shape of your red blood cells

Treatment of Anemia

Treatment for anemia typically depends on the cause. The following treatment methods can be used to treat anemia:

  • Blood transfusion
  • Folic acid supplements
  • Antibiotics
  • Removal of the spleen
  • A blood and bone marrow stem cell transplant
  • For anemia of chronic disease, doctors focus on treating the underlying disease
  • Injections of synthetic hormones
  • Dietary supplements especially for vitamin deficiency anemias



Anemia can have multiple causes, including: Iron deficiency: The most common cause of anemia worldwide, often due to inadequate iron intake or absorption. Vitamin deficiency: Deficiencies in vitamin B12 or folate can lead to anemia. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, cancer, or autoimmune disorders, can cause anemia. Blood loss: Excessive bleeding from menstruation, gastrointestinal bleeding, or trauma can result in anemia. Inherited disorders: Some individuals may have genetic disorders affecting the production or structure of red blood cells, such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia.

The treatment of anemia depends on the underlying cause and severity. Some common treatment options include: Iron supplementation or dietary changes to address iron deficiency anemia. Vitamin supplementation, such as vitamin B12 or folate, for anemia caused by deficiencies. Treating the underlying cause, such as managing a chronic disease or stopping excessive bleeding. Blood transfusions in severe cases of anemia or in emergencies. Medications or procedures to stimulate the production of red blood cells, such as erythropoietin-stimulating agents or bone marrow stimulants.

Yes, anemia can affect individuals of any age, from infants to the elderly. However, certain types of anemia, such as iron deficiency anemia in infants or vitamin deficiency anemia in older adults, may be more common in specific age groups. Anemia can also be more prevalent in populations with poor nutrition or certain medical conditions.

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