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Oncology & Hematology

Lung Cancer Treatment in Dubai at CMC

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body. Lung cancer’s early signs can be difficult to detect, but the earlier the patient receives a diagnosis, the better his/her prognosis and treatment options.

Causes of Lung Cancer

According to extensive research, 90% of lung cancer cases result from smoking. When smoke is inhaled, it damages an individual’s lung tissues. The lungs will then begin to function abnormally when damaged, which increases the risks for lung cancer.

Risk factors of lung cancer include:

  • Smoking
  • Second-hand smoke
  • Exposure to radiation
  • Exposure to asbestos, diesel exhaust, and other toxic substances
  • An individual’s history of lung cancer
  • Previous radiation therapy to the chest

Types of Lung Cancer

There are two general types of lung cancer:

  • Small cell lung cancer: This exclusively affects heavy smokers. Small cell lung cancer is less prevalent than non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Non-small lung cancer: This is a general term for several types of lung cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are examples of non-small lung cancers.

Symptoms of Lung Cancer

Lung cancer symptoms do not always present in the earliest stages. However, when they occur, they may include shortness of breath and other warning indications like back pain.

Other early indications of lung cancer could be:

  • Wheezing
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Hoarseness
  • Coughing up blood
  • A worsening cough
  • Chest pain that gets worse when one laughs, coughs, or breathes deeply.

Late symptoms

  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Balance issue
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
  • Lumps in the neck or collarbone
  • Bone pain especially in the back, ribs, or hips
  • Lack of perspiration on one side of the face
  • Shoulder pain

Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

During the diagnosis of lung cancer, the doctor will discuss the patient’s medical history and any symptoms the patient could be presenting. The following may also be recommended to confirm the diagnosis:

  • Imaging tests: X-rays, MRI, CT, and PET scans are the most used due to their ability to produce more detailed images and find smaller lesions.
  • Sputum cytology: For instance, if a patient coughs up phlegm, a microscopic examination can reveal whether cancer cells are present.
  • Bronchoscopy: A lighted tube is inserted into the patient’s lungs while on sedation. This process helps in examining the tissue of the lungs more closely.
  • Biopsy: The procedure involves obtaining a small sample of lung tissue which will then be examined under a microscope to determine if the tumor cells are cancerous.

Treatment for Lung Cancer

The main treatment methods for lung cancer are surgery to remove the cancerous cells, and chemotherapy and radiation to eradicate cancer cells. Other newer treatment options such as targeted therapy and immunotherapy can also be used, however, not until later stages.

Non-small cell lung cancer treatment (NSCLC) treatment generally differs from one patient to the next. The specifics of a person’s health and the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis will determine the treatment approach.

Stage 1 NSCLC: Surgery is done to remove the affected portion of the lung. Chemotherapy will be necessary to reduce the chances of recurrence.

Stage 2 NSCLC: Surgery to remove part or the entire lung. Chemotherapy may be recommended.

Stage 3 NSCLC: The patient may require a combination of chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation treatment.

Stage 4 NSCLC: The applicable treatment option here includes surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are other treatment options for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The cancer is usually too advanced for surgery in most cases.

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