Genitourinary cancers are cancers that develop in the male urinary system and reproductive system. These comprise malignancies of the penis, testicles, bladder, prostate, and kidneys.
The function of the urinary system is to eliminate waste products from the body, such as urine or urea. Additionally, this mechanism ensures that our bodies’ potassium and salt levels are balanced.
The male reproductive system is in charge of producing and transporting sperm and the fluid that surrounds it, called semen. The male sex cells and hormones are balanced by this system.
Adrenocortical carcinoma: This is a rare form of cancer that develops in the tissue around the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney that makes steroid hormones, adrenaline, and noradrenaline to control heart rate, blood pressure, and other body functions). It is also known as cancer of the adrenal cortex and adrenocortical carcinoma.
Bladder cancer: Bladder cancer refers to cancer that forms in the tissues of the bladder. Transitional cell carcinomas make up the majority of bladder cancers (cancer that begins in cells that normally make up the inner lining of the bladder). Squamous cell carcinoma, which starts in thin, flat cells, and adenocarcinoma are two more types of bladder cancer.
Kidney cancer: This is cancer that forms in the tissues of the kidneys. Renal cell carcinoma is the most prevalent type of kidney cancer in adults. It develops in the lining of the tiny kidney tubes that filter blood and eliminate waste. Kidney cancer that develops in the kidney’s center, where urine collects, is known as transitional cell cancer of the renal pelvis.
Penile cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that occurs in the penis. Squamous cell carcinomas make up most penile malignancies (cancer that begins in flat cells lining the penis).
Prostate cancer: It is a type of cancer that forms in the prostate tissues (a gland in the male reproductive system that is below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer typically affects older men and depending on the patient’s age and cancer’s features, treatment may not be necessary.
Renal pelvis cancer: The renal pelvis is the region in the middle of the kidney where urine collects and is funneled into the ureter. The renal pelvis and the ureter are lined with transitional cells which can stretch and change shape without breaking. Cancer in the transitional cells can start in a person’s renal pelvis, ureter, or even both.
Testicular cancer: This is a type of cancer that develops in tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular cancer is most prevalent in young or middle-aged men. Testicular germ cell tumors, which comprise the majority of testicular cancer, develop in germ cells (the cells that produce sperm).
Urethral cancer: It is a rare form of cancer that develops in tissues of the urethra, which is the tube that urine exits the body through to empty the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma are the types of urethral cancers
Genitourinary cancer refers to cancers that affect the urinary system and male reproductive system, including the bladder, kidneys, prostate, testicles, and penis.
Risk factors for genitourinary cancer can include age, gender, smoking, exposure to certain chemicals, family history of cancer, and certain medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease or bladder infections.
Symptoms of genitourinary cancer can include blood in the urine, pain during urination, changes in bowel habits, and swelling or lumps in the genital area. Diagnosis may involve imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, biopsy, or blood tests.
Treatment for genitourinary cancer may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these depending on the type and stage of the cancer and the individual patient's needs. Other treatments such as hormone therapy or targeted therapy may also be used for certain types of genitourinary cancer.